GREEN GRAM

(Moong)

 

Botanical Name: [Vigna radiate]                                                  Family: Leguminoseae

 

1.0           Introduction

 

G

reen gram is one of the  important pulse crop in India. It has been reported that Green gram has been cultivated in India since ancient times. It is widely cultivated throughout the Asia, including India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Thailand.

Green gram supplies protein requirement of vegetarian population of the country. It is a protein rich staple food. It contains about 25 percent protein, which is almost three times that of cereals. It is consumed in the form of split pulse as well as whole pulse The moong dal Khichdi is recommended to the ill or aged person as it is easily digestible and considered as complete diet.  Roti with Moong dal and Moong dal chawal is an important ingredient in the average Indian diet.

 

 It is a drought resistant crop and suitable for dry land farming and predominantly used as an intercrop with other crops. The chemical composition of Green gram is given below.

 

 

 

2.0         Nutritional value of Green gram (Dal)

 

Calorific value

(cal./

100g)

Crude protein (%)

Fat

(%)

Carb-ohyd-rate

(%)

Ca (mg/

100g)

Fe

(mg/

100g)

P

(mg/

100g)

Vitamine(mg/100g)

 

B1

 

B2

 

Niacine

 

334

 

24.0

 

1.3

 

56.6

 

140

 

8.4

 

280

 

0.47

 

0.39

 

2.0

 

 

 

3.0 State wise Major commercial varieties of Green gram

 

 

Improved varieties of Green gram grown in different states in the country

 

 

1.      Andhra Pradesh :-             ML-267, LGG-450, LGG-460, LGG-407, WGG-37,

 Pusa-105

 

  1. Andaman & Nicobar:-       K-851

 

  1. Gujarat:-                                K-851, GM-4

 

  1. Jharkhand:-                         Pant G 114, H-208, Radhe, C-235, BG-256, BR-77

 

  1. Karnataka:-                          Pant G 114, H-208, Radhe, C-235, BG-256, BR-77

 

  1. Maharashtra:-                      Kopargaon, S-8, T-44, BM-4, Chamki, Mughlai, Fule M-2

 

  1. Orissa:-                                 Local, Tarm-1, Pusa 9072, LGG-407, Pusa Baisakhi,

K-851, ML-5, ML-131, Sujata, Dhauli, PDM-54, PDM-11, Pant-2

 

8.      Tamil Nadu:-                        ADT2,ADT3, Vamban, Paiur-1, K-1, URM(GGI), CO4, CO5, VBN(GG2), CO6

 

9.      Uttar Pradesh:-                   Pant Moong-1, Type-44, Pant Moong-2, Pant Moong-3, Narendra Moong-1, PDM-54, Pant Moong-4, PDM11, Malvia Jyoti, Samrat, Malika Janchetna,, Malika Janpriya

 

  1. West Bengal:-                     B-77, B-108, T-163, T-44

 

 

4.0    4.0 Harvesting and post-harvest care

 

a)  Harvesting care:

         

 During harvesting, proper care should be taken to minimize quantitative and qualitative losses.

 

 Following care should be taken during harvesting:

 

  1. Harvesting should be done at proper maturity to ensure optimum grain quality and consumer acceptance.

 

  1. Harvesting before the maturity of crop, usually result in lower yields, higher proportion of immature seeds, poor grain quality and more chances of infestation during storage.

 

  1. Delay in harvesting of Green gram, results in shattering of pods and other losses caused by birds, rats, insects etc.

 

  1. The best time to harvest the crop, when large i.e. 80 percet of the pods are fully matured.

 

  1. Avoid harvesting during adverse weather condition i.e. rains and overcast weather.

 

  1. Use right kind of harvest equipment (sickle).

 

  1. Avoid pest infestation prior to harvesting.

 

  1. The harvested bundles should be kept in one direction in order to ascertain efficient threshing.

 

  1. Keep the harvested bundles for drying in the field after cutting on the threshing floor, if weather permits.

 

  1. The harvested produce should be stacked in a dry, clean place in cubical way to facilitate circulation of the air around.

 

  1. Rogue out the admixtures prior to harvesting

 

 

  1. Keep the harvested Green gram separately from one variety to another to get true to type variety (grains).

 

           

B) Post harvest care:

     

a.        Harvest at proper stage of maturity to reduce losses.

 

b.        Use proper method of harvesting.

 

c.        Adopt modern mechanical methods, to avoid the losses in threshing and winnowing

 

d.        Use improved technique of processing.

 

e.        Adopt cleaning and grading for remunerative prices inter-alia to avoid financial loss.

 

f.          Use good packaging materials for storage and in transport i.e. B-Twill Jute bags or HDPE bags.

 

g.        Adopt proper technique in storage.

 

h.        Apply pest control measures during storage.

 

i.           Proper handling i.e. (loading and unloading) of Green gram with good transportation facilities at farm and market level reduces losses.

 

j.           Avoid use of hooks during handling.

 

5.0 Grading

Grading means the sorting of the homogenous lots of the produce according to the fixed grade standard. Produce is graded in accordance with various quality factors.

 

 

Importance

i)                       The grading is beneficial to the farmers, traders as well as to the consumers.

ii)                     Grading of the produce before sale enables farmers to get better price for their produce.

iii)                      Grading helps the consumers to get standard quality produce at fair price.

iv)                      It facilitates the consumer to compare the prices of different qualities of a produce in the market.

v)                     It assures the quality of the produce and also reduces the cost of the marketing and transportation.

 

Grade Specifications:

i) AGMARK

 

The Agricultural Produce (Grading and Marking) Act, 1937 was enacted to maintain the quality of agricultural produce in India. According to this Act, specifications have been drawn up for Green gram for various quality factors.

 

The grade standards specified for Green gram whole, split and split (unhusked), drawn by Directorate of Marketing and Inspection, are given in Annexure I and Annexure II.

ii) National Agricultural Cooperative Federation

(NAFED)

 

           NAFED is the nodal agency of Government of India for procuring Green gram in different states under the Price Support Scheme (PSS). The concerned State Co-operative Marketing Federations are the procuring agents for NAFED.

 

Organization has prescribed only one grade i.e. Fair Average Quality (FAQ) for procurement of pulses including Green gram under the Price Support Scheme.  All the purchases under the PSS by NAFED are made in accordance with the prescribed grade / specifications which are given in Annexure III

 

 

iii) Prevention of Food Adulteration Act (PFA)

 

 

PFA has also prescribed the grade specification for split seeds (pulses) of Green gram which is given in Annexure  IV.

         

GRADING AT PRODUCERS’ LEVEL

 

      There is an increasing recognition to the fact that producers need to be assisted in grading their produce before sale so that farmers may get better price. For securing adequate returns to the producer/seller, the scheme of “Grading at Producers’ Level” was introduced in 1962-63 by Directorate of Marketing and Inspection. The main objective of this scheme is to subject the produce to simple test and assign a grade before it is offered for sale. After grading, the producers get prices commensurate with the quality of the produce. The programme is being implemented by the States/Union Territories.

 


 

Sanitary and phyto-sanitary requirements:

 

             The agreement on Sanitary and Phyto-Sanitary (SPS) measures is a part of the GATT Agreement, 1994, for export and import trade. The aim of the agreement is to prevent the risk of introduction of new pests and diseases in new region i.e. importing countries. The main purpose of the agreement is to protect human health, animal health, and Phyto-Sanitary situation of all member countries and protect the members from arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination due to different Sanitary and Phyto-Sanitary standards.

 

When SPS Required: The SPS agreement applies to all Sanitary and Phyto-Sanitary measures, which may directly or indirectly, affect international trade.  Sanitary measures deals with human or animal health, and Phyto-Sanitary measures are related to plant health.  SPS measures are applied in four situations for the protection of human, animal or plant health:

 

1.   Risks arising from the entry, establishment or spread of pests, diseases, disease- carrying organisms or disease causing organisms.

2.   Risks coming from additives, contaminants, toning or disease-causing organisms in foods, beverages or feedstuffs.

3.   Risks arising from diseases carried by animals, plants or products thereof, or from the entry, establishment, or spread of pests.

4.   Prevention or limitation of damage caused by the entry, establishment or spread of pests.

 

The SPS standards commonly applied by Governments as they affect imports are:

 

(i)           Import Ban (Total/partial) are generally applied, when there is a significant rate risk about a hazard.

(ii)         Technical specification (Process standards/Technical standards) are most widely applied measures and permit import subject to compliance with pre-determined specification.

(iii)       Information Requirements (Labelling Requirements/Control on Voluntary claims)   permit imports provided they are appropriately labelled.

 

6.0 Packaging

 

Following packaging materials are used in packaging of Green gram:

 

1) Jute bags                

2) HDPE/pp bags

3) Polythene impregnated Jute bags                   

4) Poly pouches

(5) Cloth bags

The good packaging material must posses the following qualities:

 

1)     It must protect quality and quantity.

2)     It must prevent spoilage during transit and storage.

3)     It must tell information about quality, variety, date of packing, weight and price etc.

4)     It must be convenient in handling operations.

5)     It must be convenient to stack.

6)     It must be cheap, clean and attractive. 

7)     It must be biodegradable.

8)     It must free from adverse chemicals.

9)     It should be useful after the first use.

 

7.0 TRANSPORTATION

Transportation is an essential element in marketing. It involves the movement of produce from the place of production to the place of consumption, safely by use of one or more modes of transport.

The transportation of Green gram is mainly done by head loads, bullock or camel cart, tractor-trolleys, trucks, railways and ships depending upon the availability of transportation means, quantity of the produce and the stage of marketing.

 

 

             

 Means of transportation used at different stages of marketing

 

Stage of Marketing

Agencies

Means of Transport Used

è   From threshing floor to the village market or primary market.

 

Farmers

By head load, pack animal, bullock or camel cart and tractor trolley.

è   From primary market to secondary whole sale market and miller

Traders / Millers

By trucks, railways.

è   From wholesale markets and miller to retailer

Millers / Retailers

By trucks, railways, mini trucks, tractor trolley.

è   From retailer to consumer

 

Consumers

By hand, bicycle, rickshaw.

è   For Export and Import

Exporters and Importers

By railways and ship

 

Availability of cheaper and convenient modes of Transport:

 

The most common modes of transportation are

 

a.                  Road Transportation

 

a)              Head Load               b)          Pack Animals               

 

c)         Bullock cart            d)        Tractors Trolley

 

e)          Trucks

                                     

2.                  Railways

 

 

3.         Water Transport

 


 

Selection of Mode of Transportation

 

 Following points should be considered for the selection of mode of transportation:

 

  1. The mode of transportation should be cheaper among available alternatives.

 

b.      It should be convenient during loading and unloading of Green gram.

 

  1.  It must protect Green gram during transportation from adverse weather conditions.

 

  1. It should be safe from pilferage etc.

 

  1. It must deliver Green gram to consignee in stipulated period as the price changes every day.

 

f.        It should be easily available particularly during post harvest period.

 

  1. Distances should be considered.

 

8.0    STORAGE

 The storage is an important aspect of post harvest technology because Green gram is seasonally produced (mainly during kharif season) but consumed throughout the year.

.

 

 

Safe storage requirements:

 

The following points should be considered while storage of Green gram:

 

1.      Selection of site (location): 

  1. Selection of storage structure:
  2. Cleaning of storage structures:

4.      Cleaning and Drying:

5.      Cleaning of bags:

6.      Separate storage of new and old stock:

7.      Cleaning of vehicles:

8.      Use of dunnage:

9.      Proper aeration:

10. Regular inspection:

 

Major stored grain pests and its control measures

 

Post-harvest protection of pulses assumes a greater importance in overall crop protection system. All the efforts put in while raising the crop would go in vain, if adequate measures are not adopted during storage. The produce is to be essentially stored for longer or shorter duration, either for consumption or as seed for sowing during the next cropping season.

The various factors responsible for deteriorate of grains and seeds stored can be broadly classify under two categories.

 


 

1. Biotic factors                               2. Abiotic factors

 

i)  Insect                                                          i)  Moisture content/Relative humidity

ii) Rodents                                                    ii)  Temperature

iii) Birds

iv) Fungi

v) Mites

vi)Bacteria

 

Name of pests

Figure of Pest

Nature of Damage

1. Pulse beetle

 

Callosobruchus

sps.

 

      

  

        Beetle

i) The larvae bore into pulses and feed the entire content of the seed leaving only the shell (seed coat) behind.

 

ii)Adults cut out circular holes in seeds.

 

iii)Sometimes these insects begin their infestation, when the pods are in the ripening stage in the field, and are subsequently carried with the seeds into the store after harvest.

 

iv)These pests do not attack split pulses.

2.Khapra beetle

 

Trogoderma granarium

(Everts)

         

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

           Beetle

 

 

        

                                                       

 

i) Larvae are one of the most serious stored seed pest but the beetle itself does not damages.

ii) The larvae starts feeding from embryo point and later consume the entire kernel/seed which makes the grain hollow and only the husk remains.

iii) Infested seeds are full with frass, cast skins of larvae and excreta, which results in deterioration of quality of pulses.

iv) The larvae are often found on edges of jute stacks and make the infested store unhygienic.

 

 

3. Dried bean weevil

 

Acanthoscelides

obtectus

(Say)

 

  

 

 

 

i) Infestation is induced in the field on ripening of crop when pods are split.

ii)  Larvae feed on the seed by boring.

4. Rice moth

 

Corcyra cephalonica

(Stainton)

         

           

Moth

 

 

i) Larvae contaminate the seeds with dense webbing, excreta and hairs.

ii)  Whole seed  are bound into lumps.

5.Confu-sed flour beetle

 

Tribolium confusum J.du V.

 

 

 

 

i) Beetle and larvae both feed on broken and damaged seeds produced by milling and handling or attacked damaged seeds of other insects.

 

6. Rodents

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

i) Rodents feed whole seeds and split pulses.

ii) They also cause mechanical damage to gunny bags and other storage structures of pulses by cutting, which results spilling of grains.

iii) They spill more seeds than they eat.

 iv) Rodents also contaminate pulses by hair, urine and feces, which deteriorate the quality and cause many diseases, like cholera, food poisoning, ringworm, rabbies etc.

 

7. Temperature

Thermometer has been viewed 5151 times

Temperature is an important abiotic factor governing the condition of pulses in store.  All the insects do breed within a limit of minimum and maximum temperature. The optimum temperature for breeding of most of insects in storage, range between 270C -370C.

 

 

 

STORAGE STRUCTURES

 

Traditional storage structures

 

                                                              1      Mud bins or Kothi

                                                              2      Metal Drums

                3.   Thekka

                4.  Gunny Bags

Improved storage structures:

 

     The Government of India has made efforts to promote improved storage facilities at the farm level and launched a programme to impart scientific knowledge to farmers regarding storage of grains known as the Save Food Grain Compaign. Indian scientists and agriculturists have designed and fabricated improved storage bins for the use of farmers, which are moisture resistant and rodent-proof.

 

i)      Improved bins:

 

           a)       Pusa Kothi               b)        Nanda bins      c)       Hapur Kothi

             d)       PAU bins                  e)         PKV bins          f)        Chittore stone bins etc.

 

ii)    Warehouse

iii)   CAP Storage (cover and plinth) storage

 

iv)   Silos

 

STORAGE FACILITIES

 

             Green gram storage is performed at different level;

 

 

i) At Producer’s Level

 

           

ii) At Rural Level

 

iii) At Mandi level

 

iv)  At CWC

 

v)  At State Warehousing Corporation (SWCs) 

           

vi)  At Co-operative level

 

Storage facilities

 

1)  Producers’ storage

 

Producers store Green gram in bulk at farm godown or own house using various types of traditional and improved structures. Generally, these storage containers are used for short period. Different organisations/institutions developed improved structures for Green gram storage with various capacities like Hapur Kothi, Pusa bin, Nanda bin, PKV bin, etc. Different storage structures are also used for this purpose like bricks-built rural godown, mud stone godown etc. Producers also use flexible PVC sheets covering for temporary storage. Some producers also pack Green gram in jute gunny bags or in gunny bags lined with polythene and stack in room.    

 

2) Rural godowns

 

Considering the importance of rural storage in marketing of agricultural produce, the Directorate of Marketing and Inspection initiated a Rural Godowns Scheme, in collaboration with NABARD and NCDC. Its objective is to construct scientific storage godowns with allied facilities in rural areas and to establish a network of rural godowns in the States and Union Territories. The main objectives of Rural Godowns Scheme are as under;

 

i)        To prevent distress sale of foodgrains and other agricultural commodities immediately after harvest.

ii)      To reduce quantity and quality losses arising from sub-standard storage.

iii)    To reduce pressure on transport system in the post-harvest period.

iv)    To help the farmers in getting pledge loans against the stored produce

 

Eligibility :  The project for construction of rural godowns can be taken up by individuals, farmers, group of farmers/growers, Partnership/ Proprietary firms, Non-Government Organizations (NGO’s), Self Help Groups(SHGs), Companies, Corporations, Co-operatives, Agricultural Produce Marketing Committees, Marketing Boards and Agro Processing Corporations in the entire country. However, assistance for renovation/ expansion of rural godown is restricted to the godowns constructed by cooperatives only.

 

Location :   Under the scheme, the entrepreneur will be free to construct godown at any place and of any size as per his commercial judgment except for the restrictions that it would be outside the limits of Municipal Corporation area and be of a minimum capacity of 100 MT.

 

3) Mandi godowns

 

Most of the States and Union Territories have enacted Agricultural Produce Market (Regulation) Act. The reduction of loss of produce was aimed in the scheme of regulated market. The regulated markets developed modern market yard with necessary infrastructural facilities. The APMCs have constructed godowns so that the agricultural produce brought into the market should be stored safely by market committees. The produce is weighed in the presence of producer/seller at the time of keeping the produce in the godown after grading for storing and receipt is issued indicating the quality and weight of produce to be stored. The receipt is issued by the licensed general commission agents or brokers depending upon the case. The CWC, SWC and Co-operative societies have also constructed godown in the market yards.

           

In most of the secondary and terminal regulated markets, central and state warehousing corporations also provide scientific storage facilities at prescribed storage charge and issue warehousing receipt against pledge of produce, which is a negotiable document for obtaining finance from the Scheduled Banks.

 

 

4)  Central Warehousing Corporation ( CWC )

 

CWC was established during 1957. It is the largest public warehouse operator in the country.  Apart from storage, CWC also offers services in the area of clearing and forwarding, handling and transportation, distribution, disinfestation, fumigation and other ancillary services like safety and security, insurance, standardization and documentation.  The CWC has also introduced a scheme, called the Farmers’ Extension Service at selected centres to educate farmers about the benefits of a scientific storage. The CWC is also operating custom bonded warehouses. These bonded warehouses are specially constructed at a seaport or airport and accept imported commodities for storage till the payment of customs duties by the importer of the commodities.

 

 

5) State Warehousing Corporations (SWCs)

   

Different states have set up their own warehouses in the country. The area of operation of the State Warehousing Corporations is district places of the state.The total share capital of the State Warehousing Corporations is contributed equally by the Central Warehousing Corporation and concerned State Government. The SWCs are under the dual control of the State Government and the CWC. 

 

 

6) Co-operatives

 

            Cooperative storage facilities are provided to the producer at cheaper rates, which reduces the storage cost. These cooperatives also provide pledge loan against the produce and storage is more systematic and scientific than traditional storage. Financial assistance and subsidies are provided by Government organisations/banks to build cooperative storage. To meet the increasing need for storage capacity, the National Cooperative Development Corporation (NCDC) encourages construction of storage facilities by cooperatives, particularly at rural and market level.

 

9.0 IMPORTANT  ASSEMBLING MARKETS

 

Major Assembling Markets:

 

Some major assembling markets of different states are as under:

 

Sl. No.

Name of State

Name of Dist.

Location / Place of Regulated Markets

1.

Andhra Pradesh

East Godawari

Kakinada

Kothapeta

Ambuje Peta

Rajanmundri

Bikkavole

Mulkipuram

Tinu

Prakasam

Ongole

Addaniki

Markapur

Kambam

Kondepi

Santanutllapady

Nalgonda

Nalgonda

Miryalguda

Suryapet

Bhoungir

Makrekal

Thirumalgiri

Valigonda

Choutuppal

MOtnkur

Medak

Sadashiupet

Zaheerubad

Jogipet

Karim Nagar

Karim Nagar

Jogityal

Dharmavaram

Gangadhara

Choppadandi

2.

Andaman Nikobar

 

3.

Gujarat

Banaskantha

Palanpur

Deera

Chunera

Panthuwada

Bhabhur

Thura

Tharal

Mensena

Mensena

 

Kadi

Vadnagar

Vigapur

Visanagar

Kutchh

(H.Z. Bhuj)

Bhuj

Mandavi

Anjar

Bachan

Rapar

Mundra

4.

Jammu & Kashmir

 

5.

Karnataka

Bangalore (U)

Bangalore

Mysore

Mysore

Gulbarga

Gulbarga

Sedam

Yadgir

Bidar

Bidar

Bhulki

Raichur

Raichur

Dharwar

Dharwar

Hubli

Gadag

Gadag

Laxmeshwar

6.

Maharashtra

Parbhani

Parbhani

Gangakhed

Jintur

Manwat

Purna

Selu

Pathuri

Palamr

7.

Orissa

Anugul

Anugul

Balangir

Balangir

Cuttack

Kendupatana

Jagatsingpur

Jagatsingpur

Jajpur

Jajpur

Kalahandi

Junagarh

Bhawanipatha

Kesinga

 

Orissa

Khurda

Balugoan

Mayurbhanj

Baripada

Sundarfarh

Sargipalli

8.

Rajasthan

Nagaur

Nagaur

Merta city

Kucneman city

Tonk

Malpura

 

 

Ajmer

Kekri

Jodhpur

Jodhpur

9.

Tamil Nadu

Salem

APMC Salem

APMC Authur

Namakkal

APMC Namakkal

Virudhunagar

APMC Virudhunagar

Tuti corin

APMC Tuticorin

APMC Kovilpatti

Coimbatorer

APMC Coimbatorer

Thanjavur

APMC Tanjavur

Erode

APMC Erode

10.

Uttar Pradesh

Miruit

Miruit

Ghaziabad

Ghaziabad

Mainpuri

Mainpuri

Hathras

Hathras

Barilly

Barilly

Moradabad

Moradabad

Kanpur Nagar

Kanpur

Allahabad

Allahabad

Laliptur

Laliptur

Varanashi

Varanashi

Lakhow

Lakhow

Saharanpur

Saharanpur

11.

West Bengal

Madinapur West

Kharagpur

Madinapur

Contai

24 Pargana South

Barbipur

Jaya Nagar

Burdwan

Asansale

Purulia

Purulia

Nadra

Bellanadhani

Karimpur

Malda

Samuc

Birbhun

Suithana

Coochbehar

Coochbehar

Darjiling

Darjiling

 

10.0 MARKETING CHANNELS

 

Following are the important marketing channels exist in the marketing of Green gram.

 

A)  Private Marketing Channel:

 

i)  Producer  à  Dal Miller  à  Consumer

 

ii) Producer  à  VillageTrader  à  Dal Miller  à  Wholesaler  à  Retailer  à  Consumer

 

iii) Producer  à  Dal Miller  à  Retailer  à  Consumer

 

iv) Producer  à  Wholesaler  à  Dal Miller  à  Retailer  à  Consumer

 

v) Producer  à  Wholesaler  à  Dal Miller  à  Wholesaler  à  Retailer  à  Consumer

 

vi) Producer  à  Wholesaler  à  Retailer  à  Consumer (For whole Green gram)

 

vii) Producer àCommission Agent à Dal Miller à Wholesaler à Retailer à Consumer

 

B)  Institutional Marketing Channel:

 

 

 Producer  à  Procuring Agency   à   Dal Miller   à   Consumer

                          

Producer  à Procuring Agency à Dal Miller   à   Wholesaler  à Retailer  à Consumer

                          

Producer  à Procuring Agency  à   Dal Miller   à   Retailer  à  Consumer

                          

11.0  Marketing information

To be efficient marketing decisions, Marketing information is a key function, regulate the competitive marketing processes and to restrict the monopoly or profiteering individuals in the market. It is needed by producers in planning production and marketing of their produce, and is equally required by other market participants. Farmers need to be fully familiarized in different areas of agricultural marketing in order to improve price realization. Marketing information is important at all the stages of marketing right from farm level to ultimate consumption level and simultaneously for all the participants in these stages i.e. producers, traders (millers), consumers, etc.

 Government of India has started Agricultural marketing information network scheme through Directorate of Marketing and Inspection to  improve the present market information scenario by linking all agricultural produce markets in the States and Union Territories. The information are displayed on the website www.agmarknet.nic.in

 

Benefits:

 

            Marketing information is important for all the concern participants of Agricultural Marketing.

 

It benefits to

 

1)  Producers

 

2)  Consumers

 

3)  Traders

4)  Government

 

12.0 Alternative systems of marketing

 

12.1 Direct marketing

 

            Direct marketing is an innovative concept, which involves marketing of produce i.e. Green gram by the farmer directly to the consumer/miller without any middlemen.

 

Advantages:

 

1.      Direct marketing helps in better marketing of the produce.

2.      It increases profit of the producer.

3.      It minimizes marketing cost.

4.      It encourages distribution efficiency of the marketing system.

5.      It promotes employment to the producer.

6.      Direct marketing satisfy the consumer.

7.      It provides better marketing techniques to producers.

8.      It encourages direct contact between producers and consumer.

9.      It encourages the farmers for retail sale of their produce.

 

12.2 Contract marketing

 

Contract Marketing is a system of marketing, where selected crop is grown for marketing by farmers under a ‘buy back’ agreement with an agency (entrepreneur or trader or processor or manufacturer).

 

Advantages to farmers:

 

1.      Price stability ensuring fair return of produce

2.      Assured marketing outlet and no involvement of middlemen.

3.      Prompt and assured payments

4.      Technical advice in the field of production till harvesting

5.      Fair trade practices

6.      Credit facility

7.      Crop insurance

8.      Exposure to new technology and best practices

 

Advantages to contracting Agency:

 

i)                    Assured supply of produce (raw materials)

ii)                  Control on need based production/post harvest handling

iii)                Control on quality of produce

iv)                Stability in price as per mutually agreed contract terms and conditions

v)                  Opportunities to acquire and introduce desired varieties of crop

vi)                Help in meeting specific customer needs/choice

vii)              Better control on logistics

viii)            Strengthen producer/buyer relationship

 

 

 


 

12.3     Co-operative marketing

 

The co-operative societies sale the member’s produce directly in the market, which fetches the remunerative price. Co-operative societies, market the member’s produce collectively and secure advantages of economy of scale to its members.

 

The following services are provided in Co-operative marketing

1.             Procurement and disposal of farm produce

2.             Processing of produce

3.             Grading

4.             Packing

5.             Storage

6.             Transport

7.             Credit

8.             Fair trade practices

9.             Protect against marketing malpractices

 

Benefits:

 

a)                      Remunerative price to producers

b)                      Reduction in cost of marketing

c)                       Reduction in commission charges

d)                      Effective use of infrastructure

e)                      Credit facilities

f)                         Timely transportation service

g)                      Reduces malpractices

h)                       Marketing Information

i)                         Supply of agricultural inputs

j)                         Collective processing

 

 

 

12.4 Forward and future markets

 

            Forward trading means an agreement or a contract between seller and purchaser, for a certain kind and quantity of a commodity for making delivery at a specified future time, at contracted price. It is a type of trading, which provide protection against the price fluctuations of agricultural produce.

 

Forward contracts are broadly of two types: 

 

(a) Specific delivery contracts

 

b) Other than specific delivery contracts

 

Benefits:

              

i) Price stabilization

 

ii) Encourages competition

 

 

iii) Ensures  balance in demand and supply

 

iv)  Promotes integration of price

 

 It is useful to all segment of economy:

 

1) Producers

 

2) Traders/Exporters

 

3) Millers/Consumers

 

13.0 Institutional credit facilities

 

           

Name of

scheme

 

Eligibility

 

Facilities

1.Crop   Loan

All categories of farmers– small/marginal and others

1.      To meet cultivation expenses for various crops as short  term loan.

 

2.      This loan is extended in the form of direct finance to farmers with a repayment period not exceeding 18 months.

 

2.Produce Marketing

Loan   (PML)

All categories of farmers small/marginal and others

1.      This loan is given to help farmers to store produce on their own to avoid distress sale.

 

2.      This loan also facilitates immediate renewal of crop loans for next crop.

 

3.      The repayment period of the loan does not exceed 6 months.

 

3. Kisan

    credit

    card      scheme

All Agriculture clients having good track record for the last two years.

1.   This card provides running account facilities to farmers to meet their production credit need and contingency needs.

 

2.   The scheme follows simplified procedures to enable the farmers to avail the crop loans as and when they need.

 

3.   Minimum credit limit – Rs. 3000/-. Credit limit is based on operational land holding, cropping pattern and scale of finance.

 

4.   Withdrawls can be made by using easy and convenient withdrawl slips. The Kisan Credit Card is valid for 3 years subject to annual review.

 

5.   It also covers personal insurance against death or permanent disability; a maximum amount Rs. 50,000 and Rs. 25,000 respectively.

4.National Agricultural Insurance Scheme

Scheme is available to all farmers – loanee and non-loanee both-irrespective of the size of their holding.

 

 

1.   To provide insurance coverage and financial support to the farmers in the event of failure of any of the notified crops as a result of natural calamities, pests and diseases attack.

 

2.   To encourage the farmers to adopt progressive farming practices, high value in-puts and higher technology in agriculture.

 

3.   To help in stabilizing farm incomes, particularly in disaster years.

 

4.   General Insurance Corporation of India (GIC) is the Implementing Agency.

 

5.   Sum insured may extend to the value of threshold yield of the area insured.

 

6.   Coverage of all food crops (cereals, millets and pulses), oilseeds and annual commercial/horticultural crops.

 

7.   Small and marginal farmers are provided subsidy of 50% of premium charged from them. The subsidy will be phased out over a period of 5 years on sunset basis.

 

 

 

 

5.Agricul-

tural      Term Loan

All categories of farmers (small/medium and agricultural labourers) are eligible, provided they have necessary experience in the activity and required area.

 

 

1.   The banks extend this loan to farmers to create assets facilitating crop production/income generation.

 

2.   Activities covered under this scheme are land development, minor irrigation, farm mechanization, plantation and horticulture, dairying, poultry, sericulture, dry land, waste land development schemes, etc.

 

3.   This loan is offered in the form of direct finance to farmers with a repayment span not less than 3 years and not exceeding 15 years.

 

 

 

 

 

Pledge finance

 

             To get rid of distress sale, Government of India, promoted Pledge Finance Scheme through a network of rural godown and negotiable warehousing receipt system. Through this scheme, small and marginal farmers can get immediate financial support to meet their requirements and retain the produce till they get remunerative price.

           

Benefits:

 

(i)           Increases the retention capacity of the small farmers, which in consequent also enable the farmers to avoid distress sale.

 

(ii)         Minimises the farmer’s dependency on the commission agents as the pledge finance provide financial support to them immediately after harvest period.

 

(iii)       Participation of the farmers, irrespective of their land holding size, increases the arrivals in market yard throughout the year.

 

(iv)        Provides a sense of security to the farmers even if their produce not sold out in    the market yard immediately.

 

14.0 Organisations/ agencies providing marketing services

 

Name of the Organisations / Agencies & Address

 

 

 
Services Provided

1.Directorate of Marketing and  Inspection (DMI)

NH-IV, CGO Complex

Faridabad

 

Website:

www.agmarknet.nic.in

?     To integrate development of marketing of agricultural and allied produce in the country.

?     Promotion of standardization and grading of agricultural and allied produce.

?     Market development through Regulation, Planning and Designing of physical market.

?     Administration of Meat Food Products Order (1973).

?     Promotion of Cold Storage.

?     Liaison between the Central and State Governments through its regional offices (11) and sub-offices (37) spread all over the country.

2.Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA)

NCUI Building, 3, Siri Institutional Area, August Kranti Marg, New Delhi-110016

 

Website: www.apeda.com

?     Development of scheduled agriculture products related industries for export.

?     Provides financial assistance to these industries for conducting surveys, sensibility studies, reliefs and subsidy schemes.

?     Registration of scheduled product exporters on payment of such fees as may be prescribed.

?     Adapting standards and specification for the purpose of export of scheduled products.

?     Carrying out inspection of meat and meat products for ensuring the quality of such products.

?     Promotion of export oriented production and development of scheduled products.

?     Collection and publication of statistics for improving marketing of scheduled products.

?     Training in the various aspects of industries related to the scheduled products.

 

3.National Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Federation of India Ltd. (NAFED)

Nafed House, Sidhartha Enclave, New Delhi – 110014

 

Website:

www.nafed-india.com

 

?     Central nodal agency of Government of India for procurement of pulses, millets and oilseeds under price support scheme.

?     It undertakes sale of pulses and oilseeds procured under PSS and import.

?     Provide storage facilities.

?     Consumer Marketing Division of NAFED serves the consumers in Delhi through the network of its retail outlets (NAFED BAZAR) by providing consumer items of daily need.

?     Processing of pulses, fruits, etc for internal trade.

 

 

 

 

4.Central Warehousing Corporation (CWC)

4/1 Siri Institutional Area Opp. Siri fort New Delhi-110016

Website :

www.fieo.com/cwc/

 

5.State Warehousing Corporation (SWC)

 

?     Provides scientific storage and handling facilities.

 

?     Offers consultancy services/ training for the construction of warehousing infrastructure to different agencies.

 

?     Import and export warehousing facilities.

 

?     Provides disinfestation services.  

 

 

?     To acquire and build go-downs and warehouses within the state.

?     To run warehouses, in the State for storage of agricultural produce and notified commodities.

?     To arrange facilities for the transport of agricultural produce and notified commodities to and from warehouses;

?     To act as agent of the CWC or the Government for the purpose of the purchase, sale, storage and distribution of agricultural produceand notified commodities.

 

6.National

Co-operative Development  Corporation

( NCDC )

4, Siri Institutional Area, New Delhi-110016

Website:

www.ncdc.nic.in

?       Planning, Promoting and Financing Programmes for production, processing, marketing, storage, export and import of agricultural produce.

?       Financial support to Primary, Regional, State and National level marketing societies is provided towards

?       Margin money and working capital finance to augment           business operations of agricultural produce.

?       ii) Strengthening the share capital base and

?       ii) Purchase of transport vehicles.

 

 

7.Director General of Foreign Trade,

 (DGFT)

Udyog Bhavan, New Delhi.

Website:

www.nic.in/eximpol

 

?     Provides guidelines / procedure of export and import of different commodities.

 

?     Allot import-export code number (IEC No) to the exporter of Agricultural commodities.

 

 

8. Directorate General of Commercial Intelligence and Statistics (DGCIS),

1, Council House Street,  Kolkata-1

 

 

?     Collection, compilation and dissemination of marketing related data i.e. export-import data, inter state movement of foods grains etc.

 

 

 

9.Directorate of Economics and Statistics,

Shastri Bhavan, New Delhi.

 Website:

www.agricoop.nic.in

 

?       Compilation of agricultural data for development and planning.

 

?       Dissemination of market intelligence through publication and Internet.

 

10.State Agricultural Marketing Board,

at different state’s capital

 

?     Implementation of the regulation of marketing in the state.

?     Provides infrastructural facilities for the marketing of notified agricultural produce.

?     Grading of agricultural produce in the markets.

?     To co-ordinate all the market committees for information services.

?     Provides aid to financially weak or needy market committees in the form of loans and grants.

?     To arrange or organise seminars, workshops or exhibitions on subject relating to agricultural marketing.

 

 

11.Agriculture Produce Marketing Committee

(APMC)

?     Provides market information on arrivals, prevailing prices, despatches etc

?     Provides market information of adjoining / other market committees.

?     Arranges training, tours, exhibitions etc.

 

 

 

12.Kisan Call Centers

(New Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata, Hyderabad, Banglore, Chandigarh and Lucknow)

?     Provides expert advise to the farmers.

?     These centers will operate through toll free telecom lines throughout the country.

?     A country wide common four digit number 1551 has been allocated to these centers.

 

 

 

 

 


 

15.0     DO’S AND DON’TS

        

DO’S

DON’TS

1.   Harvest the Green gram at proper stage of maturity i.e. Harvest the crop when 80% of the pods are mature (turned yellow).

 

 

 

2.   Harvest during conducive weather condition.

 

 

3.   Threshing and winnowing on cemented (pucca) floor.

 

 

4.   Market the Green gram after AGMARK grading to get remunerative prices in the market.

 

5.   Before marketing the produce, get the market information regularly from agmarknet.nic.in website, newspapers, T.V., radio, concerned APMC offices etc.

 

6.   Store the Green gram during post harvest period and sale it later when the prices are higher in the market.

 

7.   Use proper and scientific method of storage.

 

 

8.   Avail the benefit of centrally sponsered GRAMIN BHANDARAN YOJANA (scheme) for construction of rural godowns and store Green gram to minimise losses.

 

9.   Select the shortest and efficient marketing channel to get highest share in marketing.

 

 

10.             Package properly to protect the quality and quantity of produce during transit and storage.

11.             Select the cheapest and convenient mode of transportation from the available alternatives.

 

 

12.             Transportation of Green gram should be done in bags to minimize the grain losses.

 

13.             Use effective, efficient and improved post harvest technology and processing techniques to avoid post harvest losses.

 

 

 

 

 

14.             Avail the facility of Price Support Scheme during glut situation.

 

15.             Avail the procedure of Sanitary and Phyto-Sanitary measures during export.

 

16.             To assure better marketing of the produce, avail benefit of contract farming.

 

17.             Avail the benefits of future trading to avoid price risk arising due to wide fluctuations in commodity prices.

 

a.                                       1.   Delay in harvesting results in shattering of pods. Harvest of Green gram before the pods are fully mature, may result in lower yields, higher proportion of immature seeds, poor grain quality.

 

2.  Harvest the crop during adverse weather condition (during rain and over cast weather).

 

2.                                       3. Threshing and winnowing on kutcha floor leads to increase in post harvest losses

 

3.                                       4. Marketing of Green gram without grading will fetch lower prices.

 

4.                                       5. Market produce without collecting / verifying marketing information.

 

 

 

 

5.                                       6.  Sale the Green gram during post harvest period when the prices are low during this period due to glut.

6.                                        

 

7.                                       7. Use conventional and outdated method of storage, which causes storage losses.

 

8.                                       8.  Store Green gram at unscientific place in a haphazard manner, which will result qualitative and quantitative deterioration of Green gram grains.

 

 

 

9.                                       9. Use the long marketing channel, which reduces the producer’s share as well as more commission charges.

 

10.                                   10. Improper package causes more losses during transit and storage.

 

11.                                   11. Use the mode of transport, which will cause losses and require higher cost.

 

12.                                    

 

 

13.                                   12. Transport Green gram in bulk, which causes more losses.

 

 

14.                                   13. Use traditional and conventional techniques in post harvest operations and in processing which causes more quantitative and qualitative losses.

 

15.                                   14. Sale Green gram to local traders or    itinerant merchant during glut situation.

 

16.                                   15. Export without any Sanitary and Phyto-Sanitary measures and face rejection.

 

17.                                   16. Produce Green gram without assessing and assuring its market demand for that year.

 

18.                                   17. Sell the produce at fluctuating prices or in glut situation. 

 

 


 

Annexure I

I)Grade specification of quality of Green gram (Moong Whole)

 

 A)  General Characteristics:

 

       Green gram (Moong  whole) shall –

 

 (a) be the dried mature seeds of Pulse Green gram (Phaseolus aurues Roxb. or phaseolus radiatus Rox:

(a)    be sweet, clean, wholesome, uniform in size, shape, colour and in sound merchantable conditions;

(b)   be free from living and dead insects, fungus infestation, added colouring matter, moulds, obnoxious smell, discolouration;

(c)    be free from rodent hair and excreta;

(d)   be free from toxic or noxious seeds viz. Crotolaria (Crotolaria spp.), Corn cockle (Agrostemma githago L.), Castor bean (Ricinus   communis L.), Jimson weed (Dhatura spp.), Argemone mexicana, Khesari and other seeds that are commonly recognized as harmful to health;

(e)    Uric acid and Aflatoxin shall not exceed  100 milligrams and 30 micrograms per kilogram respectively;

(f)     Comply with the restrictions in regard to poisonous metals (rule-57), crop contaminants (rule 57-A) naturally occurring toxic substances (rule 57-B), use of insecticides (rule-65), and other provisions prescribed under the Prevention of Food Adulteration Rules, 1955, as amended from time to time.

 

 

B) Special Characteristics:

 

 

Maximum limits of tolerance (per cent by weight)

 

Grade

Designation

Moisture

Foreign matter

 

Other edible grains

Damaged

Grains

Weevilled grains per cent by count

Organic

Inorganic

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Special

10.0

0.10

Nil

0.1

0.5

2.0

Standard

12.0

0.50

0.10

0.5

2.0

4.0

General

14.0

0.75

0.25

3.0

5.0

6.0

 

Note.- In  foreign matter, the impurities of animal origin shall not be more than 0.10 per 

cent by weight..

 


 

Annexure II

II} Grade specification of quality of Green gram split (Moong split husked)

 

A)  General Characteristics:

 

       The Green gram split (Moong husked) pulse shall:

(a)   Consist of husked and split seeds of Pulse Green gram  (Phaseolus  aurues Roxb. or Phaseolus rediatus Roxb.);

(b)    be sweet, clean, wholesome, uniform in size, shape, colour and in sound merchantable conditions;

(c)    be free from living and dead insects, fungus infestation, added colouring matter, moulds, obnoxious smell, discolouration;

(d)   be free from rodent hair and excreta;

(e)    be free from toxic or noxious seeds viz. Crotolaria (Crotolaria spp.), Corn cockle (Agrostemma githago L.), Castor bean (Ricinus communis L.), Jimson weed (Dhatura spp.), Argemone mexicana, Khesari and other seeds that are commonly recognized as harmful to health;

(f)     Uric acid and Aflatoxin shall not exceed  100 milligrams and 30 micrograms per kilogram respectively;

(g)    Comply with the restrictions in regard to poisonous metals (rule-57), crop  contaminants (rule 57-A), naturally occurring toxic substances (rule 57-B), use of insecticides (rule-65)  and other provisions prescribed under  the Prevention of Food Adulteration Rules, 1955, as amended from time to time.

B) Special Characteristics:

 

Maximum limits of tolerance (per cent by weight)

 

 

Grade

Designation

Moisture

Foreign matter

Other edible grains

Damaged

Grains

Broken  grains

Weevilled grains per cent by count

 

Organic

Inorganic

 

 

 

 

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Special

10.0

0.10

Nil

0.10

0.1

0.5

1.0

1.0

Standard

12.0

0.50

0.5

2.0

3.0

2.0

General

14.0

0.75

0.25

3.0

5.0

6.0

3.0

Note: - In foreign matter, the impurities of animal origin shall not be more than 0.10 per  cent by weight.

 

 


 

Annexure III

 

III}Grade specification of quality of Green gram Split (Moong split Unhusked)

 

A)  General Characteristics:

 

       The Green gram split (unhusked) pulse shall:

(a)    consist of unhusked and split seeds of Pulse Green gram  (Phaseolus  aurues Roxb. or Phaseolus rediatus Roxb.);

(b)    be sweet, clean, wholesome, uniform in size, shape, colour and in sound merchantable conditions;

(c)    be free from living and dead insects, fungus infestation, added colouring matter, moulds, obnoxious smell, discolouration;

(d)    be free from rodent hair and excreta;

(e)    be free from toxic or noxious seeds viz. Crotolaria (Crotolaria spp.), Corn cockle (Agrostemma githago L.), Castor bean (Ricinus  communis L.), Jimson weed (Dhatura spp.), Argemone mexicana, Khesari and other seeds  that are commonly recognized as  harmful to health;

(f)     Uric acid and Aflatoxin shall not exceed  100 milligrams and 30 micrograms per kilogram respectively;

(g)    Comply with the restrictions in regard to poisonous metals (rule-57), crop  contaminants (rule 57-A),  naturally  occurring toxic substances (rule 57-B), use of insecticides (rule-65)  and other provisions prescribed under  the Prevention of Food Adulteration Rules, 1955, as amended from time to time.

 

B) Special Characteristics:

 

 

Maximum limits of tolerance (per cent by weight

 

Grade

Designation

Moisture

Foreign matter

Other edible grains

Damaged

Grains

Broken and Fragments grains

Weevilled grains per cent by count

 

 

Organic

Inorganic

 

 

 

 

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Special

10.0

0.10

Nil

0.1

0.5

0.5

1.0

Standard

12.0

0.50

0.10

0.5

2.0

2.0

2.0

General

14.0

0.75

0.25

3.0

5.0

5.0

3.0

 

Note- In foreign matter, the impurities of animal origin shall not be more than 0.10 percent by weight.

 

 

Source: AGMARK STANDERDS for FOODGRAINS AND ALLIED PRODUCTS Under The Agricultural Produce (Grading and Marking), Act, 1937 Rules made upto 1st June, 2005, (Sixth Edition) Volume- VII and website of the Directorate of Marketing and Inspection “www.agmarknet.nic.in”


 

Annexure IV

 

 

Grade specifications of National Agricultural Cooperative Federation (NAFED):

 

           NAFED is the nodal agency of Government of India for procuring Green gram in different states under the Price Support Scheme (PSS). The concerned State Co-operative Marketing Federations are the procuring agents for NAFED.

 

Organization has prescribed only one grade i.e. Fair Average Quality (FAQ) for procurement of pulses including Green gram under the Price Support Scheme.  All the purchases under the PSS by NAFED are made in accordance with the prescribed grade / specifications which are given in AnnexureIII


 

Annexure V

iii) Specifications under Prevention of Food Adulteration Act (PFA):

 

A.18.06.07-MOONG WHOLE:

 

            Moong whole shall consist of seeds of Green gram (Phaseolous aureus Roxb., Phaseolous radiatus (Roxb.).  It shall be sound, dry, sweet, wholesome and and free from admixture of unwholesome substances. It shall also conform to the following standards, namely: -

 

(i)     Moisture –                      Not more than 14 per cent by weight (obtained by heating the pulverised grains at 130°C - 133°C for two hours).

(ii)   Foreign matter-             (Extraneous matter) – Not more than 1 per cent by weight of which not more than 0.25 per cent by weight shall be mineral matter and not more than 0.10 per cent by weight shall be impurities of animal origin.

(iii) Other edible grains – Not more than 4 per cent by weight.

(iv)  Damaged grains --      Not more than 5 per cent by weight.

(v)    Weevilled grains  –     Not more than 5 per cent by count

(vi)  Uric acid –                   Not more than 100 mg per kilogram

(vii) Aflatoxin –                  Not more than 30 micrograms per kilogram.

 

            Provided that the total of foreign matter, other edible grains and damaged grains shall not exceed 9 per cent by weight.

 

A.18.06.10 – SPLIT PULSE (DAL):

 

Dal Moong shall consist of split seeds of pulse (Phaseolous aureus Roxb., Phaseolous radiatus Roxb.)..)].  It shall be sound, dry, sweet, wholesome and free from admixture of unwholesome substances. It shall also conform to the following standards, namely: -

 

(i)           Moisture –                      Not more than 14 per cent by weight (obtained by heating the pulverised pulses at 130°C - 133°C for two hours).

(ii)         Foreign matter --           (Extraneous matter) – Not more than 1 per cent by weight of which not more than 0.25 per cent by weight shall be mineral matter and not more than 0.10 per cent by weight shall be impurities of animal origin.

(iii)       Other edible grains – Not more than 4 per cent by weight.

(iv)        Damaged grains –      Not more than 5 per cent by weight.

(v)          Weevilled grains –      Not more than 3 per cent by count

(vi)        Uric acid –                   Not more than 100 mg per kilogram

(vii)      Aflatoxin –                   Not more than 30 micrograms per kilogram.

 

            Provided that the total of foreign matter, other edible grains and damaged grains shall not exceed 8 per cent by weight.